Workbook Learning Activities for Module 2
Workbook Learning Activity 1
All textbooks in pharmacology present tables and figures that illustrate the complex array of physiological effects produced by activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Referring to Figure 11-2 on page 193 and Table 11-1 on page 194 of Bryant and Knights, Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition, 2011, recreate and complete the following table in your workbook;
• For each body system list the effect of activating the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems in the first two columns, then in the third column, describe a clinical symptom or condition that may be observed in someone with a highly activatedparasympathetic nervous system. (Total of 7.5 marks for Question 1)
Body System Parasympathetic Sympathetic Clinical Symptom / Condition
e.g. Heart – Rate Decrease Increase Bradycardia
Heart – Force of Contraction
Male Sex Organs
(2.5 Marks) (2.5 Marks) (2.5 Marks)
Workbook Learning Activity 2
Recreate and complete the following table in your workbook;
• For each drug; in the first column, identify ONE paramedic indication, then in the subsequent columns, list the molecular target involved in the identified interaction, the type of interaction (i.e. agonist / antagonist / allosteric modulator / inhibitor), and briefly explain how this interaction of the drug with the molecular target accounts for the observed therapeutic effect for that indication. (Total of 25 marks for Question 2)
Drug Paramedic Indication Drug Target Type of Interaction Therapeutic Effect
e.g. Salbutamol Acute Asthma ß2-adrenoceptor Agonist Activation of ß2-adrenoceptors in the lung causes relaxation of the bronchiole smooth muscle, bronchodilation and increased airflow.
(5 Marks) (5 Marks) (5 Marks) (10 Marks)
Workbook Learning Activity 3
In pharmacodynamics, a drug can be thought of as ‘selective’ when it shows a significant preference for interaction with one molecular target, even though it may be faced with many molecular targets to choose from. Indeed, salbutamol can act as an agonist at all ß adrenergic receptors, but at therapeutic doses it ‘selects’ the ß2 adrenergic receptor subtype in preference to others.
In this workbook learning activity you will need to recreate and complete the following table in your workbook, considering the drugs used in your clinical practice as a paramedic:
• In the first column, list FIVE receptors from different classes, then list their endogenous agonist(s) in the second column.
Receptor Endogenous Substrate Selective agonist or antagonist
used in paramedic practice
(2.5 marks) (2.5 marks) (5 marks)
• In the third column give an example of ONE drug that is a clinically relevant SELECTIVE agonist OR antagonist for each of the receptors. (Total of 10 marks for Question 3)
Workbook Learning Activity 4
Antagonists at receptors for neurotransmitters or hormones are often used clinically.
1. Consider drugs that are antagonists of ß adrenergic receptors and briefly explain how they produce clinically useful effects.(2.5 marks)
2. Considering the actions of ß-adrenoceptors in the body identified in part (1), would it be the most appropriate treat uncomplicated hypertension in 68 year old patient with moderate asthma and renal impairment with atenolol, metoprolol or