The Synergistic Effect of Taurine and Caffeine on Platelets and Hemostatic Function
Course Name and Number:
The popularity of energy drinks is tremendously increasing among the athletes and young people, and are usually marked as healthy energy-giving drinks. However, caffeine and taurine are mostly the major ingredients in these energy drinks. There is also the perception created by the media reports and literature suggesting that these energy drinks that are rich in caffeine and taurine and are helpful in building the muscles, improving energy as well as sustaining strength. However, there has also been a report indicating that these drinks may have led to fatality in some cases.
Therefore, the intent of this in vitro study was to compare the caffeine effect with that of taurine as well as their synergistic effects on a variety of parameters acting as thrombotic risk markers. For instance, the platelet function test has been determined by the platelet aggregometry. Moreover, the coagulation profile was tested both before and after treatment. This was aimed at evaluating the individual effect of both taurine and caffeine as well as synergistically on coagulation function and platelet activity in order to examine whether both ingredients are instrumental in the attenuation of the risk factors that result to thrombosis. Additionally, this study is designed on the basis of the hypothesis that caffeine is a stimulant and taurine as an antioxidant; in combination, they may be capable of reducing platelet and haemostatic activity. A number of studies have so far given evidence to the caffeine effect, however, none has already been done to determine the synergistic effect of both caffeine and taurine.
In this study, the in vitro effects of caffeine are investigated, as well as the effects of both the taurine and caffeine combined with taurine on the platelet function and coagulation profile. Hence, all the involved volunteers recorded normal FBE results (WBC 5.980 ± 1.360, MPV 7.70 ± 0.6769 and platelet 260.6 ± 74.03) as well as the coagulation profiles (PT 13.66 ± 0.6201, APTT 36.63 ± 5.63). Also the volunteers involved in this study had to complete a volunteer screening form prior to the collection of the blood (Appendix I). However, the results of this study shows that caffeine, taurine and caffeine in combination with taurine inhibited platelet aggregation in response to ADP or collagen agonist. Furthermore, the taurine and caffeine in combination with taurine was found to affect the PT results. These results were in partial agreement with the results of previous studies that demonstrated that high concentrations of taurine inhibited platelet activation. These results therefore, suggests that caffeine enhances collagen to stimulate platelet shape change or platelet swelling. Other previous studies have hypothesised that, caffeine doesn’t affect platelet aggregation significantly, but in this study the synergistic of caffeine and taurine have been demonstrated for the first time.
The conclusion of this study is that caffeine in combination with taurine has been proven to significantly reduce or decrease the maximal platelets aggregation in response to collagen or ADP. Additionally, taurine combined with caffeine was found to affect the coagulation profile, particularly on the PT assay. Caffeine and taurine have also been shown to affect platelet aggregation induced by collagen, and ADP. Therefore, taurine as an antioxidant and caffeine as a stimulant synergistically reduce or decrease platelet aggregation. Thus, the pathways involved in the role of caffeine and taurine on platelet activity, as shown by the study results need further investigations by in vivo studies.
Table of Contents
1.3 Platelet aggregation
2. Materials and methods
2.2 Blood collection
2.3 Full blood examination (FBE)
2.4 Coagulation profile
2.5 Taurine and caffeine preparation
2.6 Platelet aggregometry
2.6.1 Specimen preparation
2.6.2 Platelet aggregating agents
2.6.3 Study design and procedure
2.7 Statistical methodology
3.2 FBE results
3.3 Coagulation profile
3.3.1 APTT results
3.3.2 PT results
3.4 Platelet aggregometry
3.4.1 Platelet aggregation induced by ADP agonists
List of Tables
Table 3.1 Results of FBE.
Table 3.2 Descriptive statistics of FBE.
Table 3.3 APTT results, APTT= activated partial thromboplastin time
Table 3.4 Descriptive statistics of APTT.
Table 3.5 PT results.PT = Prothrombin Time.
Table 3.6 Descriptive statistics of PT.
Table 3.7 Data table showing percentage of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) agonists.
Table 3.6 Data table showing percentage of platelet aggregation induced by collagen agonists.
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Figure 3.1 Platelet aggregometry using ADP as the agonist. Includes mean with SD values;* ANOVA results were significant (p<0.05).
Figure 3.2 Platelet aggregometry using collagen as the agonist and include mean with SD values. * ANOVA results were significant (p<0.05).
CRAZY OFFER!!! ASSIGNMENTS COMPLETED FOR FREE!!
GET THIS ASSIGNMENT DONE FOR FREE NOW, JUST PLACE YOUR ORDER AND DO NOT MAKE ANY PAYMENT: WE WILL COMPLETE THE PAPER FIRST BEFORE YOU PAY AND YOU PAY ONLY AFTER YOU RECEIVE AND APPROVE YOUR COMPLETED PAPER! IF YOU ARE NOT IMPRESSED, WE WILL NOT ASK ANYTHING FROM YOU! WHAT ELSE WE WILL DELIVER IT WITHIN YOUR SPECIFIED TIME FROM 3 HOURS TO 10 DAYS DEADLINE.
THIS IS ONLY A LIMITED OFFER! TAKE ADVANTAGE!!