Research Paper, Engineering and Construction

Erogonomic factors on bending, lifting, and reaching


Prepare a written report of six double spaced pages highlighting a company that has experienced some negative publicity (either through litigation or citation) because of failing to recognize an ergonomic hazard in the work environment. Be sure to discuss the nature of the ergonomic hazard(s), financial impacts sustained by the company (litigation, injury, etc…), other types of facilities that may expect similar problems, and any other pieces of information that you feel may be important from your research. Once a company has been selected, that company can no longer be selected by another student. You may consider searching verdict results of different law firms or the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) website for ideas. The following link will help:

On the NIOSH screen that comes up, look to the right for the “search” block. Type the words ergonomic health hazard evaluation into the block and click the “search” button. That will bring up a list of some 90 or so HHEs to get you started. Please have your topics selected by no later than September 18, 2013. Failure to seek pre-approval of your topic will result in a 50% deduction from the overall score if your topic duplicates any selected by another team.

Your final submittal must include all the following components:

1. Cover Page
2. At least six full pages of double spaced text.
3. Works Cited Page
4. Graphics Page (optional)

Technical Requirements:

1. The cover page must include:
a) Title of Paper
b) Course name and rubric number (Ergonomics and Human Factors; OSHT 2305)
c) Instructor’s name (Freddy Sustaita Jr.)
d) Student’s name
e) Date

2. The report text must your original thoughts, opinions, and recommendations.

Introduction: Your very first action is to capture the reader’s attention. Try to put your topic into terms that become personal for the reader so that he/she can relate to your topic. Next, define the purpose and scope of the paper. You may want to provide some relevant background information and alarming statistics about the topic you have chosen to write about that will continue to arouse the reader’s interest. The last sentence of your introduction should clearly state your three specific objectives that you will address regarding your topic. For example: “This paper will discuss the nature of XYZ Company’s ergonomic hazard (content area 1), the financial impacts sustained by XYZ Company (content area 2), and other types of facilities that may expect similar problems (content area 3).” (Keep in mind that this is only an example).

Body: The body of the paper should clearly explain each of your three specific content areas in the order stated in your introduction. This is where you’ll discuss the facts surrounding the topic involved, discuss your findings (providing specific examples), present your recommendations, or whatever information you feel is relevant based on the content areas you’ve selected. You will need to use at least three (3) reference sources in the body of the text (one separate reference for each content area). Others may be needed for the introduction and conclusion. You must use at least one textbook and one published periodical or professional journal (not from the internet). Your third and subsequent references may be from the internet.

Conclusion: Recap some of the high points of your paper for each content area that you covered to round out your discussion. Next, clearly restate the purpose of the paper by restating your three specific objectives. For example: “This paper discussed the nature of XYZ Company’s ergonomic hazard (content area 1), the financial impacts sustained by XYZ Company (content area 2), and other types of facilities that may expect similar problems (content area 3).” (Keep in mind that this is only an example). Your last sentence should draw a final conclusion leaving the reader with a strong message as to why you think this topic is important.

3. The paper must be written using standard American Psychological Association (APA) formatting. Failure to do this will cost the student 10-points for each occurrence. Below are some online resources to help you with APA formatting:

Citing Sources in the Text: APA offers a few different ways that an author can cite sources used in the text of a document based on what the source is. Because this can be a slightly complicated process, I will offer one standardized format for students to use based on APA guidelines. When citing a source in your text simply write what you are borrowing from the source and in parenthesis, include the source author’s last name (or organization name) followed by a comma and the year the source was produced. The following is only one example so please review the APA manual for other types of sources.

According to the National Safety Council’s textbook Accident Prevention Manual for Business and Industry: Administration and Programs, there has been criticism that some reward and incentive programs encourage employees to under report incidents and injuries or encourage supervisors to misuse light duty options (NSC, 2001).

Preparing your Works Cited list: There are several different sources that you may be eligible to use in preparing your document. The APA manual will help you greatly in preparing your Works Cited list for the sources that you select. Textbook entries into the list will look slightly different from websites, which will look slightly different from magazine articles, which will look slightly different from television documentaries, etc… Note the following example which corresponds with the example above (the OSHT 2309 class textbook) which would be considered a book by a corporate author:

National Safety Council (2001). Accident Prevention Manual for Business and Industry: Administration and Programs. Itasca, Illinois: National Safety Council.

4. All internet sources must include the complete path leading to the specific area of the website where the source originated. For your Works Cited list, the entry should look something like the following example which would apply for an online manuscript or working paper:

Author, A.a, & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue if available). Retrieved from

5. The paper must be typed, have at least six (6) Full/Complete pages double-spaced (not including the Cover Page, Works Cited Page, or Graphics Page). Use standard size type (font size 12) and no greater than the default margins (1 inch at top and bottom and 1.25 inches on the sides).

6. Papers may include graphics (pictures, sketches, drawings, etc.) supporting the student’s research or preparation for the assignment. However, if used they must be included in a separate Graphics Page, discussed in the text of the paper, and properly labeled and cited. Citing must be done in the text and on the Works Cited page. Note the following example that might be included in your text:

Figure 1 illustrates a typical procedure to follow when conducting a Failure Mode and Affects Analysis (FMEA) as described by Nancy Tague (2004) in her textbook The Quality Toolbox.

This textbook would then be included in your Work Cited list as follows:

Tague, Nancy (2004). The Quality Toolbox. 2nd ed. Milwakee, Wisconson: ASQ Quality Press.

Finally your graphics must be labeled on your Graphics page as follows:
Function Potential
Failure Mode Potential Effect(s) of Failure S Potential Cause(s) of Failure O Current Process Controls D R
T Recommended Action(s) Responsibility and Target Completion Date Action Results
Action Taken S O D R
Dispenses amount of cash requested by customer Does not dispense cash Customer very dissatisfied

Incorrect entry to demand deposit system

Discrepancy in cash balancing 8 Out of cash

Machine jams

Power failure during transaction 5
2 Internal low-cash alert

Internal jam alert

None 5



10 200



160 40



Dispenses too much cash Bank looses money

Discrepancy in cash balancing 6 Bill stuck together

Denominations in wrong trays 2
3 Loading riffle ends of stack

Two-person visual verification 7


4 84


72 12


Takes too long to dispense cash Customer somewhat annoyed 3 Heavy computer network traffic

Power interruption during transaction 7


2 None


None 10


10 210


60 21


Figure 1 – Typical FMEA Procedure
7. Your term paper must be submitted by no later than 11:59pm on the due date.

Grading Matrix
Criteria Points

Cover page and overall length 10
Opening message 2.5
Lead into each content area 10
Statement of scope and purpose 5
Content area 1 matching introduction 5
Specific examples (2 minimum) 10
In-text citations (2 minimum) 10
Content area 2 matching introduction 5
Specific examples (2 minimum) 10
In-text citations (2 minimum) 10
Content area 3 matching introduction 5
Specific examples (2 minimum) 10
In-text citations (2 minimum) 10
Summary of each content area 10
Clear recap of content areas 5
Strong closing message 2.5
WC page meets APA guidelines 10
At least one printed book 10
At least one printed periodical 10
Total points 150
Topic Selections:

Alvarez – Shell Oil & Gas