a. The seventh layer of the OSI model is the Application layer.
b. Protocols in the Transport layer accept data from the Session layer and manage end-to-end delivery of data.
c. False: The IP (Internet Protocol) does not operate in the Transport layer.
d. True: Standards help to ensure interoperability between software and hardware from different manufacturers.
e. False: Standards define maximum acceptable performance
Part II – V
OSI Model
OSI layers Description Hardware Protocols How data is built

Physical Physical layer Is a first layer that deals with the physics of the network such as cords and
connectors alsovoltage levels and timing.
Hubs, Repeaters, Cords, Network cards.
Network Access The first Layer is built by connecting all the cords, hubs and network devices to the computer.
Data Link Data layer is responsible for getting the traffic on the network and communicating. This is where all
the computers connect to a switch so they can talk to each other.
LANSwitch, Wireless access point, DSL modem.

Network Access, SLIP After setting our network up we need to transfer and receive our data. This layer converts
frames into bits so they can be passed to the physical layer
Network Network layer, or in another words “Routing Layer” is a layer that is responsible for making sure that frames
go from one end of the network to another.


IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP we need to fragments the package in to smaller pieces so it can be accepted and transmitted

Transport Transport layer decides the amount of information to be transported at one time; it receives the
fragments and reassembles the data on the system of the receiving host. TCP, UDP, SPX
Session Session layer is basically creating a session between two computers. Every time a computer communicates with
another computer, they have to open a session. DNS, SIP
Presentation Is a layer that’s operation system is on; it is responsible for things like character encoding,
device drivers, protocol conversion and data compression. ANSI, SSH, FTP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, SSL
Application Application layer is a layer that allows an access to the network thru out various software such as
Internet Explorer, Chrome, Outlook Express etc. Firewall FTP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, SSI

Dean, T. (2010).Network+ guide to networks (5 ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Securing Your WHS and Network – Part 8




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