Answer all the seven forums provided in this paper……………
Suicides rates are on the rise due to social-cultural factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, biology and genetic make up, gender, culture, the population, media effects, mental illness and physical illness, economic forces and political structure (Clarke, Bannon, Denihan, 2003) Men will commit suicide if they lost their jobs due to recession, while the teenagers might commit suicide due to teenage pregnancy or excessive abuse of drugs and on the other hand, some minority groups will commit suicide due to pressure within the society arising from famine or other catastrophic occurrences. Some group of people will commit suicide when suffering from mental illness or some terminable diseases (Middleton, Whitley, Dorling, Gunnell, 2004). This causes them anguish and hence suicide is the only option available to end the suffering.
Clarke CS, Bannon FJ, Denihan A. (2003) Suicide and religiosity: Masaryk’s Theory
Revisited, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 38(9): 502-506
Middleton N. Whitley E. Frankel S. Dorling D. Sterne J. Gunnell D. (2004) Suicide risk in
Small areas in England and Wales, 1991-1993 Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 39(1): 45-52
The countries in the Northern territory like Tasmania record a higher rate of suicides due to diversity in their culture, history and language because they tend not to share their problems with the rest choosing the option of suicide. The rates do vary in some countries who share common religious norms of condemning suicides because they encourage sharing of problems and religious counselling. Besides, traditional religious beliefs protect against suicides as the victims are usually considered as outcasts hence many individuals fear being outcasts when they die. The inner philosophy is vital in all aspects as it gives regulation against suicide. A set of principles and procedure of living with morals by the religious set (Nisbet, 2000) which view suicide having a connection with spiritual and religion (Swinton, 2006) where caring, comfort, companionship and understanding lacks.
Nisbet PA, Duberstein PR, Conwell Y, Seidlitz L (2000) the effect of participation in
Religious activities on suicide versus natural death in adults 50 and older. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 188(8) 543-546
Swinton J and Mowat H. (2006), Practical Theology and Qualitative Research Methods,
London: SCM Press
Suicide fatalities are motivated by Pain not willingness, accumulation of hazardous elements and defence factors affect these victims while some in relationships are led by ethical responsibilities. The ethical issues include avoiding harm to oneself, valuing self willpower and giving care and justice to oneself (Highland Health care Trust (2003). Physicians should respect individual’s privilege, dignity and partiality. They should refer the victims to other places where they think help will be offered for instance churches and mosques (Mowat 2006). They should also keep the information gathered confidential to avoid further harm. In addition, they should encourage the clients to give out the truth about what is disturbing them with great honesty. This fosters effective treatment and recovery of the suicide attempt victims.
Highland Health care Trust (2003) Choose Life: Action Plan for suicide Reduction in the
Highland Council Area
Mowat H., J.Swinton, C. Stark, D. Mowat, (2006), Religion and Suicide: Exploring the role
Of the church in deaths by suicide in Highland, Scotland
Rational suicides are predetermination and prior thoughts of ending one’s life. The victims have a justifiable intent which is understandable by a social group. Rational suicides may not be so if the victims have a mental disorder like schizophrenia, depression, stress or even narcotics misuse. Some suicides are irrational in the sense that one consumes excess alcohol, has a loaded gun in the house or a wife has left him (Lester 2000). Rational suicides have enough information, are able to reason (Dervic, Mann, 2004) and act according to their interests. The death movements have made more research on the causes and prevention of suicides in Western Europe (Sartorius2003) making various statistics concerning the trends in suicides in the different genders.
Dervic K, Oquendo MF, Grunemaum MF, Ellis S, Burke AK, Mann JJ. (2004) Religious
Affiliation and Suicide Attempt, American Journal of Psychiatry 161: 2302-2308
Lester D. (2000) Religious homogeneity and Suicide, Psychological Reports 87 (3): 766
Sartorius N (2003) Old Age and suicide in Eastern Europe International Psycho geriatric
Association Biannual Conference: Chicago
Euthanasia is killing with intention at the request of the victim or the victim may not request but due to terminal illness the physician feels its right to end the life (Kevorkian 2011). Euthanasia is wrong because it is not possible to predict ones life expectancy and it is not acceptable. In some cases it may be for the purpose of containing the costs since the terminal illness may be taking too long to end life. It is also done if the choice may be thought as a good option to take to avoid the burden hence the assisted suicide. It is practiced by people who think it is for their own good to defend other people’s lives (Duberstein, Conwell, Eberly, Caine, 2004). Some countries have made it legal but most societies consider it to be a crime. In (Sampson et al v State of Alaska 2001) the Supreme Court in the state of Alaska ruled unanimously that state laws punishing assisted suicide as manslaughter are to be held
Duberstein PR, Conwell Y, Conner KR, Eberly S, Evinger JS, Caine ED. (2004) Poor social
Integration and Integration and suicide: fact or artefact? A case-control study Psychological Medicine 34(7): 1331-1337
Kevorkian (2011) Euthanasia facts; euthanasia.com
In treating the suicidal victims it is important to identify the right places and proper procedures to take. The counsellor should make the client understand the shortcomings of secrecy in the procedures. They should start with assessment avoidance and be informed on the progressive (Scottish Executive 2004) activities. Knowing the risk elements, steps in assessment, guidelines for intercession. Legal suites can be made on counsellors who negligent the victims, discloses information, unreason to client’s urgent needs, or compromise with the client for Euthanasia. This is against the ethical standards of medical services. It is important for the counsellor to make the client safe and for the case of minor (Swinton, 2003) they should disclose to guardians possible risks involved.
Scottish Executive (2004), Choose Life: the national Strategy and action plan to Prevent
Suicide in Scotland, Scottish Executive Publications
Swinton J. (2003) Faiths and Community: a Response to Suicide? Paper given to conference
Discussing ‘The sorrows of Young Men’ from the centre of Theology and Public Issues.
In treatment of suicidal risks, the assessments (Middleton, Gunnell, 2004) should be recorded for track of progress. With outpatients and inpatients quality assessment enables prudent treatment and failure to document is against customary practice (Cavanagh, Lawrie, 2003). This is determined by the level of training of the physician and the knowledge he posses towards proper treatment. All the progressive steps should be recorded to enable quick solution of future suicide cases. A physician as mentioned earlier can be sued if he does not keep documentation, (Heelas, Szerszynoki, 2005) for negligence of clients, for disclosure of information to other parties and for violating the customary standards. Some cases have a particular procedure for treatment and if not followed it may result into a law suit.
Cavanagh JT, Carson AJ, Sharpe M, Lawrie SM. (2003) Psychological autopsy studies of
Suicide: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine 33(5): 395-405
Evans J, Middleton N, Gunnell D.(2004) Social fragmentation, severe mental illness and
Suicide Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39(3): 165- 170
Heelas P, Woodhead L, Seel B, Tusting K, Szerszynoki B, (2005) The spiritual Revolution.
Why Religion is giving way to Spirituality. Oxford, UK and Malden, USA: Blackwell.
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