Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases
incubation period 1 to 3 days

incubation period 3 to 6 days

spread by spores

spread by airborne droplets

caused by a virus

caused by a bacterium

anthrax

caused by a virus

caused by a bacterium

yellow fever

spread by fleas bubonic plague

spread by cattle brucellosis

common cold

Legionnaires’ disease

Use the information in the key to answer the following questions. (a) Give one difference between bubonic plague and brucellosis. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) List all the information that the key gives about Legionnaires’ disease. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 1

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2.

Name the types of blood vessel labelled X, Y and Z in the diagram below.

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X carries blood back to the heart

heart

Z carries blood away from the heart

blood flow

Y allows exchange of gases with body cells

X ……………………………………………. Y …………………………………………….. Z …………………………………………….. 3. (a) The energy used by an electrical appliance is measured in A Volts B Joules C Amps D Watts. Underline the correct answer. (b) The electrical appliance which costs the most to operate is a A 1200 W microwave used for 3 minutes B 250 W computer used for 2 hours C 5 kW oven used for 3 hours D 1300 W dishwasher used for 2 hours. Underline the correct answer. 1 1 3

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4.

(a) Complete this table by providing suitable headings.

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aluminium iron nickel

salt nylon concrete

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(b) Garden chairs can be made from different types of material. List three types of materials that can be used. 1 ……………………………………….. 2 ……………………………………….. 3 ……………………………………….. (c) Here are some properties of materials used to make a bicycle. 1 strong 3 thermal conductor 4 wear resistant 2 heat resistant 1

Which box shows the most important property for the material used to make (i) the tyres? Box number ……………….. (ii) the frame? Box number ……………….. 2

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5.

A diagram of a nuclear power station is shown below. turbine reactor generator

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nuclear fuel

pump

(a) What type of energy is produced by nuclear fuel? A B C D light sound heat movement 1

Underline the correct answer. (b) What turns the turbine? A B C D water steam air nuclear fuel

Underline the correct answer. (c) The radioactive waste from a nuclear power station is very dangerous. Describe one way of storing the waste as safely as possible. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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6.

Use the information in the passage to answer the following questions. Different types of birds lay eggs of different size and shape. Small eggs hatch quickly but the chicks are blind and helpless. Big eggs take longer to hatch but the chicks are covered in down and can soon run about. Eggs which take longer to hatch are larger because more food is stored for the developing chick. Ravens nest in tree tops and lay small eggs which hatch in 18 days. Curlews nest on open ground and lay bigger eggs which hatch in 28 days. Curlew chicks can quickly be led away to a safer place. The shape of eggs can be round or pointed. Shore birds nest on the sand and lay four eggs with pointed ends. The eggs lie with their pointed end towards the centre of the nest. This means that the eggs take up less space, the nest is small and the parent birds can easily keep the eggs warm. Fulmars lay one very pointed egg on a bare cliff ledge. If the egg is knocked, it rolls round in an arc rather than rolling off the ledge. Egg shells contain calcium. As the chick develops inside the egg, some of the calcium is used to help the chick’s bones grow. After hatching, the mother may eat the shell to replace some of the calcium her body lost in making the egg. (a) Describe the chicks which hatch from small eggs. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Why must eggs which take longer to hatch be larger? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (c) Describe fully why shore birds lay eggs which lie with their pointed end towards the centre of the nest. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (d) Give one use of the calcium in the egg shell. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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7.

White blood cells are one of the four parts of blood. (a) Name two other parts of blood. 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) White blood cells can destroy bacteria. Describe one way in which white blood cells can destroy bacteria. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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8.

Humans adapt their environment to meet their basic needs. Match each basic need with how the environment is adapted. The first one has been done for you. Basic need Water Warmth Food Shelter How the environment is adapted clearing land to build houses building a reservoir near a river building wind generators on moor land ploughing land to grow crops 2

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9.

Complete the following sentences about steel by circling the correct answer in each box. (a) The steel used for a screwdriver is more wear resistant because it contains chromium the element nickel tungsten .

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(b) Stainless steel used for scissor blades contains chromium and tungsten the elements chromium and nickel tungsten and nickel 1 .

(c) The steel used for a saw blade is heated and quickly cooled to make more flexible the steel stronger harder 1 .

10.

The recommended daily allowances of fat, fibre and sugar for an adult are given in the table. Recommended daily allowance (g) 25 30 5

Substance fat fibre sugar

A portion of yoghurt contains 2.5 g of fat. What percentage of the recommended daily allowance of fat is in the yoghurt? Space for working

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11.

Four food chains from a pond are shown below. 1 2 3 4 algae algae algae algae water flea tadpole water flea midge larvae stickleback stickleback stickleback leech eel eel great diving beetle great diving beetle

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(a) Use the food chains to complete the food web.

algae 3

(b) All the leeches were removed from the pond. How would this affect the size of the midge larvae population? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (c) What happens to the amount of energy as it passes along a food chain? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (d) Which type of energy do green plants, such as algae, use to make food? Circle the correct answer. light chemical sound heat 1 1 1

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12.

The table below shows information about some famous bridges. Bridge Sydney Harbour Pont du Normandie Forth Rail Golden Gate Akashi-Kaikyo Type arch cable-stayed cantilever suspension suspension Country Australia France Scotland America Japan Total length (m) 1149 2143 2529 2737 3911

The span of a bridge is the distance between its support towers. The graph below shows the span of each bridge.

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 Span of bridge (m) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Sydney Pont du Forth Harbour Normandie Rail Bridge Golden Gate AkashiKaikyo

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(continued) Use the table and the bar graph to answer the following questions. (a) In which country is the longest bridge? …………………………………………………….. (b) What is the span of the cantilever bridge? …………………………………………………….. m (c) What is the total length of the bridge with a span of 500 m? …………………………………………………….. m (d) What conclusion can be drawn about the total length and span of these bridges? ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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13.

The boxes below show some plastics. 1 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 3 polythene 4 polyurethane 2 polystyrene

Burning plastics produce gases that are harmful to humans. Which box shows a plastic that produces (a) hydrogen chloride gas? Box number ………………………… (b) hydrogen cyanide gas? Box number ………………………… 1 1

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14.

The table below shows the percentage of heat lost from different parts of a house. Part of house Roof Walls and Floor Windows Door Percentage of heat lost (%) 25 45 20 10

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(a) Present the information in the table as a bar graph. (Additional graph paper, if required, can be found on Page 22)

3 (b) In one second, the heat lost from a house is 10 000 Joules. How much of this heat is lost through the roof?

Space for working

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15.

(a) A gymnast performing on the rings is able to lift his own body weight easily.

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Which aspect of fitness is most important for this activity? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Another gymnast performing floor exercises is able to bend his back and legs easily. 1

Which aspect of fitness is most important for this activity? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

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16.

The diagram below shows an underground rock formation in which fossil fuels are trapped.

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earth’s surface

1 2 3 non-permeable rock

permeable rock

(a) Complete the following sentences by circling the correct answer in each box. an anticline The name given to this type of rock formation is a fault trap gas The fossil fuel trapped in layer 2 is oil coal . 2 .

(b) Name two substances formed when fossil fuels burn. …………………………………… and ……………………………………………….. 2

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17.

Some famous diamonds have been found in different countries. Each diamond has a different weight measured in carats. The Kohinoor diamond, from India, has a weight of 105.60 carats. The Millenium Star diamond has a weight of 203.04 carats and was found in Congo. The Centenary diamond weighs 273.85 carats and the Cullinan diamond, the largest ever found, weighs 530.20 carats. Both the Centenary and Cullinan diamonds were found in South Africa. Present this information in a table with three suitable headings.

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18.

During very cold weather, elderly people may be unable to maintain their core body temperature. What name is given to this inability to maintain core body temperature? ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

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Marks 19. Mrs Shepherd is installing new lighting in her hall. She buys 2 lights costing £45 each and 3 switches costing £14 each. Calculate the total cost. Space for working
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Answer £……………

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20.

Some fractions obtained from crude oil and their uses are shown below. (a) Match each fraction to its use. The first one has been done for you. Fraction gasoline paraffin bitumen diesel naphtha Use aviation fuel plastics fuel for cars road surfaces fuel for lorries 3

(b) Which fraction is the least flammable? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

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21.

A group of students counted the caterpillars on the cabbages in five vegetable plots. Their results are shown below. Vegetable plot A B C D E Number of caterpillars 27 42 31 25 30

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(a) Calculate the average number of caterpillars in the vegetable plots. Space for working

………….. caterpillars

2

(b) Cabbages are green plants and make their own food. This food is stored as A protein B fat C starch D water. Underline the correct answer. 1

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22.

Jared was investigating the hardness of different floor tiles. He set up the following experiments. He dropped a steel dart on each tile and measured the size of the mark which was made.

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A 100cm

B 100 g dart 100 cm

C

100 g dart

80 cm 100 g dart

wooden tile D 100 cm 150 g dart E

ceramic tile F 100 cm 100 g dart

linoleum tile

100 cm 200 g dart

wooden tile

linoleum tile

wooden tile

(a) Which two experiments should Jared compare to find out if a wooden tile is harder than a linoleum tile? Letters ……………….. and ……………….. (b) Jared compared the results of experiments A, D and F. What was he trying to find out? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1

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23.

When you exercise, your heart beats faster and this strengthens the heart muscle. During exercise, your heart rate should remain within your safe exercise zone. The chart shows the safe exercise zone for people of different ages and fitness levels. 200 180 160

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140 heart rate (beats/min) 120 100

Safe exercise zone

upper limit

lower limit 80 60 40 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Age (years) 55 60 65

The upper limit applies to a fit person who exercises every day. The lower limit applies to an unfit person who rarely exercises. (a) Draw two conclusions from the information given above. 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. (b) What is the upper limit of the safe exercise zone for a 55 year old? …………………………… beats/min (c) A fit person who exercises every day is advised to keep their heart rate at no more than 168 beats per minute during exercise. How old is this person? …………………………… years 1 1 2

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24.

Dylan investigated how much energy was used to heat the water for his bath. His results are shown below. Volume of water (litres) 100 100 100 200 200 200 Temperature of bath water (°C) 35 40 45 35 40 45 Energy used (MJ) 14.6 16.7 18.8 29.2 33.4 37.6

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(a) Draw two conclusions from these results. 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. (b) Predict the amount of energy used to heat 200 litres of water to a temperature of 43 °C. …………………………… MJ 25. Complete the sentences below by circling the correct answer. (a) If water becomes polluted by sewage, the number of invertebrates will decrease stay the same increase . 1 1 2

(b) If the level of air pollution is unchanged, the number of different types of lichen will decrease stay the same increase . 1

(c) If the number of predators in an area decreases, the number of prey will decrease stay the same increase . 1

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26.

The table below shows the number of lichen species growing at different distances from a city centre.

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Distance from city centre (km) 0 5 10 15 20 25

Number of lichen species 0 5 12 20 31 45

Draw a line graph to show these results. (Additional graph paper, if required, can be found on Page 22.)

Number of lichen species

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