Evidence for the need to keep order is found in several ancient documents, or copies of those documents. Two of the more important examples of written law are

Hammurabi’s Code and the Mosaic Law. These well-known sets of statutes are similar in nature, and show nearly the same development, in terms of sophistication and

completeness. However, it was Hammurabi’s Code that would set a standard for future cultures for law-giving and awareness among established cultures. And Hammurabi’s

contribution existed for nearly 800 years before Judaism’s contribution through the Law of Moses, which tends to consternate those who believe that Jehovah’s issuance

of laws was original. Notwithstanding the special nature of Jehovah’s connection with His chosen people group, the laws that Jehovah issued wouldn’t have been

understandable had they been altogether different. I suggest that for those dependent on the Biblical account, they should look at the entire Old Testament as an

anthropologist might. Moses is credited with writing the first five books; and even in the book of Genesis, we see vast changes in how people related to each other.

“In the beginning” there wasn’t anything, and then after six days there is everything. But before we know it, Adam and Eve have Cain and Abel, and after a misfortunate

turn of events for Cain, Cain kills Abel. But instead of murder meaning the death of the murderer, Jehovah institutes the Cities of Refuge. Cain is not punished for

his criminal act, but is rather given a way out, without receiving a full pardon. Generations follow. Persons live well past 800 years and there are cities and

cultures established, until the entire Earth is overwhelmed by a planet-wide flood. Everything is erased, save a few that Jehovah saved. There is the confusion of

languages, and the separation of a special people group from all of society at the time. At some point in the telling of Genesis, other post-flood culture arise—one of

which is the culture in which Hammurabi lived —and Abram is called out from among that Fertile Crescent culture and is told to walk to what is today the state of

Israel. Promises are made, people rebelled, descendants of those people are rescued, and Moses leads a remnant through the Sinai Peninsula until they are on the verge

of entering the “promised land.” That’s a lot of history to cover in just the first five books. And yet, one is led to believe that all that is contained in those

books is somehow historically and chronologically accurate.

But there are problems with that interpretation: a discussion best left to theologians and others interested in the historicity of the Bible.

Right now, on your laptop, notebook, or smart phone, go to www.fordham.edu and look up the Hammurabi Code as translated by L.W. King. Compare what you read about

Hammurabi with the Wikipedia history of the Law of Moses. How are they similar? How are they different? Does “God” have a name? Is that “God” the same for Hammurabi

and Moses? Discuss these questions.

It is quite evident that success is directly related to efficiency and efficiency, as we have come to appreciate it, depends on an ordered process manufactured by

human ingenuity. Persons in a clan must wake up every day with the intent to function as well as possible in her or his assigned job. Now let’s imagine a well –

functioning clan, and let’s assign jobs to everyone in the clan. Let’s also imagine clans of 600 kiloannum and clans after the disappearance of Neanderthals around 35

kiloannum, and again at 3,500 B.C.E. There will be a vast difference between the first and third clans, in terms of sophistication and ability, but not so much between

the first two, except for the change in tools.
Note: Megaannum (Ma) and Kiloannum(ka) are measures of time unrelated to the Christian Era; thusly they represent time, rather than accurately account for time. Clan

life at 600 ka Leader Hunter Group Gatherer Group ? ? ? Probably the strongest or most dominant male or female, or perhaps a power couple Strongest and most clever

members, in terms of hunting skills Everyone not involved in the hunter group, to include children

There is little differentiation within each role. To establish order in a clan, there must be one, strongest or most clever leader. But leadership back then was not as

sophisticated as it would become in our time. Perhaps the best example of how that clan would have worked would be found in groups of primates. It is likely that

hunters were more


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