Change Management Models

Change Management Models

Modern organizations are currently faced with numerous challenges from within the organization and also from external factors. It’s therefore important that firms keep changing their ways of doing business to keep in touch with modern business dynamics and also enhance their competitiveness. This has led to a lot of concentration on the concept of change within organizations. To successfully navigate through the process of change different models have been designed to ensure that firms get the maximum benefit from the process. This paper will therefore discuss three different models that can be used to implement an organizational change. The paper will also design a plan for implementation of change using one of the models discussed and also include data collection tools and presentation of the findings of the process.

Change implementation models
A number of models exist that can be used to implement the change process within an organization. They includes: The 4step change model which was developed by Peter Senge, McKinsey 7tep model and Kotters 8tep change model. All these models work different but aimed at achieving a successful change within the organization.
Peter 4 step Model:
This model has been developed specifically to assist in the management and dealing with challenges that might occur during the change process. The four steps in the change management process include:
This is normally the first step that will be experienced by the management especially to the staff that is expected to implement the change process. In this stage all the parties concerned will normally assume the non existence of information about the impending change and treat the situation as if nothing is happening. The members concerned will still help the organization in the implementation process but continue to deny the presence of change. The author of this model encourages the management provide as much as information as possible especially to the parties affected and recognize their concerns about the change. The management also needs to guide them through the steps that would make them adapt to the change process.
This is the second step under this model and involves staff members with full knowledge about the coming change. Change normally comes with new developments that may take time to understand and in order to avoid it the staff will use all means possible to try and block the process so that they can retain the status quo.This is the most difficult stage but still manageable. The management has a responsibility to listen to the concerns of the members and also sympathies with them but must remain supportive so that the members can learn the new developments as fast as possible.
This is normally the turning point in change management process and after the realization of the benefits of the impending change the staff members begin to embrace it and develop positive attitude towards the new system. This will lead to an increased productivity among the staff as they allow the new developments to guide them through their work. This process is however gradual and may take longer as they do not just change once. The management needs to put more efforts in this stage and make necessary priorities and provide the support needed by the employees to help them understand the system. They should also employee all the measures that would help the employees overcome the fears (Cameron & Green, 2009).
This is the final step under this model and is characterized with acceptance and dedication by the staff members towards the change process. At this stage all the employees will be working together towards achieving the aspects that are brought by change. The management must therefore create long term goals, set a clear mission and vision and also reward all the employees who are able to achieve in their new roles. The commitment by employees will finally lead to rapid results for the organization.
This is one of the simplest ways of implementing change within organizations and the four steps are key to success in undertaking a change process.

Kotters 8tep Model:
Kotters model is mainly focusing on the internal organizational processes in implementing a change process. It’s more aligned to management administrative responsibilities towards change. It provides a step by step guide to implementing a small or full scale change within the organization.
Step 1: Sense of urgency:
This is the first step in implementing change and follows the fact that changes are quite dynamic and the longer it takes to implement it the more irrelevant it will be to the organization. In this stage the management must scan through the environment and determine the opportunities and the threats that could affect the change process.
Step2: Leadership
The process of change requires strong leadership and people who are visionary in order to take the organization from one level to another. It’s therefore important to form a coalition of leadership that will be able to drive the process. In this stage the management can also gauge the strengths and weaknesses of the members to provide the best mix of personnel (Beerel, 2009).
Step3: Creation of vision:
The change process must be initiated towards a particular direction and hence the organization must create a clear vision that will provide direction for all the parties. Step 4: Communication.
Once a clear vision has been set up, it’s important that all the members of the organization work together to achieve it. This will require a lot of communication efforts from the management so that necessary clarifications about the costs and benefits can be understood. Communication also provides a link among all the parties concerned in the implementation process.
Step5: Obstacles.
Change process may not take place smoothly as there are a number of constraints that could derail the whole process. These obstacles could emanate from the management or the staff. Typical obstacles could be inadequate resources, personnel, skills and also issues to do with resistance from the staff members. These obstacles must be identified and addressed as early as possible.
Step 6: Short term achievements:
A change process may take time to achieve but short term achievements can be a great motivation. It’s therefore important that the management assesses short term gains and communicates to the members so that they get encouraged.
Step 7 and 8: Building change and making culture:
Once the change process derives positive outcomes in the short run the organization must continue to extend such gains into the future and make it part of the organization culture.
McKinsey 7step Model:
This is the third model in change implementation and it utilizes the 7 internal competences that organizations will manipulate to derive the maximum benefits from the change process. It therefore uses the 7 internal factors to create value for the organization.
The 7 key competences include: shared value, structure, strategy, skills, staff, systems and management style. This is the most common model and makes use of local mechanisms to initiate a change process. These variables will therefore determine the type of change that organization needs.
The shared value is the common string that puts together all the members and entails the organization position and what it stands for in its business. The others like structure, strategy and system constitutes the hard variable that clearly defines the future direction of the organization. The rest of the variables are soft and are used to support the processes within the organization.
For the purpose of this assignment we shall use the McKinsey 7 step model to evaluate how organizations could implement a change process. This will normally start with data collection about the organization internal capabilities (
Data collection:
Most internal organization information can be found within the organization itself and hence it’s important that primary and secondary data collection methods are used. In this regard interviews with selected staff at all levels can be conducted to determine their composition and their skills. Other variables like organization strategy, structure and systems can be found within the organization interactive media like the website hence this will constitute a secondary data collection method. Shared value and organizational style of management are not easily recognizable and will need a closer observation of the organization hence observation of the specific skills will also constitute a data collection method but in the context of change management.
Goal setting plans:
Once all these information is gathered the management can then embark on setting long term plans and future direction of the organization in line with the internal capabilities identified in the data collection section. This is the most difficult stage as it includes the projections of the future direction and will largely depend on the response of the internal capabilities and the ability of the management to coordinate all these variables. Goal setting will be supported by the strategies of the organization which must be within the scope of the management and the resources available in the organization.
Diagnostic skills:
One of the key pillars of the model is the shared value, organization skills and the staff. All these must be combined to ensure that organization operates under a conducive atmosphere for all the members. In this study it will be important to observe all the staff members at all levels and determine their common goals. These goals must then be analyzed to come up uniform values that all the members of the organization must adhere to in order to achieve the goals set in the earlier stage. In this stage communication will play a major role and hence the organization will set up a vertical and horizontal communication systems to ensure that all staff members are able to freely express their views and also explore skills and talents. Once common ground has been reached the management will then provide leadership and direction on the next course of action and this must be aligned towards the implementation of change.
Feed back:
This process would be quite collaborative and since the management have the better understanding of the organization; it will be prudent that they are involved in the process so that the desired results are achieved. After collection of the data the study will be embarking on the analysis and observation of the other variables within the organization. The analysis should culminate into a diagnostic report which mainly provides information about the skills that organization has the core values of the members, the common culture and working relationships and the styles that are appropriate. The feedback for this kind of study will be provided on a periodic basis which will take the form of weekly updates then the final report will be handed to the management two weeks after the final observation. The importance of observation is to determine the key competences that cannot be found from data collection process.
Resistance and how to handle it:
It’s normally common in any organization that change will not be easily accepted and this would be possible as early as the process of data collection begins and as such many employees would not be happy to provide information that the management will be using to improve the working dynamics. They may therefore fail to cooperate or simply provide false information that may not reflect the true organization position. Change management will normally require the support of all parties of the organization and according to this model this is demonstrated through shared value but it may not be possible to get the members with shared value. The staff will therefore find it difficult to embrace shared value and hence they will resist any form of change (Pugh, 2007).
The most effective way of solving the problem of resistance is communication at all levels and hence the management must develop a proper communication system which is both vertical and horizontal to ensure that all the parties concerned have a full understanding of the process.

Beerel,A.(2009). Leadership and Change Management. Los Angeles; London: SAGE.
Cameron,E.& Green,M.(2009).Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide
to the Models, Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change.2nd ed. London ;
Philadelphia : Kogan Page.
Pugh,L.(2007). Change management in information services.2nd ed. Aldershot,
Hampshire, England; Burlington, VT : Ashgate.” 7-S Framework of McKinsey“ June


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