Improving health care for American Indians

Improving health care for American Indians

Accessibility to good quality health care services is considered very important for a nation. This is because it improves various health outcomes, like the ones that have been set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It becomes very hard from achieving the health issues covered in MDGs if a country’s vulnerable populations seldom have access to professional health personnel and other crucial inputs.
Significant difference in health exists between the United States general population and the people of the American Indian. This difference in health arises from the complex problems faced by the American Indian people, including low incomes, lack of adequate housing, poor education systems, cultural factors, and malnutrition (Spector, 2009). This paper intends to discuss on the strategies for improvement of the health care for American Indian population.
The region covered by the Indian health service is characterized by the health care system that is not well funded. Lack of access to healthcare services has made the region to have the highest incidences of diseases that are preventable. In the Arizona State, the average age at which people die is about 72. 2 years for the general population, while for Indian Americans is only 54.7 years (Shi & Singh, 2011). The American Indian population has been greatly affected by the cases of preventable diseases than the rest of Americans.
One of the strategies that can be applied to improve healthcare for American Indian population is to increase funding for Indian Health Service (HIS). This added fund will help in procuring the much needed equipments and drugs as well as in hiring more medical professionals (Spector, 2009). This will increase accessibility of good healthcare by the American Indian hence, reduction in the health disparities between them and the native population. The second strategy is requesting the Federal agencies that provide benefits and services to Alaskan population to partner with other agencies and conduct regular reviewing of policies that might prevent their collaboration and access to health benefits and services (Shi & Singh, 2011). There is need for these agencies to be flexible in order to promote access to high quality, cost effective and well coordinated health care to the Alaskan population.
The third strategy is to enroll more American Indians in the medical training colleges. The Federal agencies need to collaborate with the existing medical institutions in offering training programs that will help improve the welfare of the community (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, n.d).
The prospect of the American Indian population with regard to health lies on the success in addressing behavioral health issue by stakeholders like individuals, families and communities and its eventual integration into the health systems of the community (Shi & Singh, 2011). To achieve success and maintain behavioral change in the community there are requirements that need to be fulfilled. These are cultural reconnections, community participation, increasing resources, leadership capacity, and the ability of the existing systems to adjust to the emerging and changing issues. Factors like, education, economic development, housing, and justice fall under social determinants of health and impact heavily on the health and well being of the American Indian people.

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. “Training and Networking on Health Disparities.” Retrieved on 27th January 2012 from:
Shi, L. & Singh, D (2011). Delivering Health Care in America. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Spector, R. E. (2009). Cultural diversity in health and illness. (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Chapter 8, part 1: Retrieved on 27th January 2012 from:
Chapter 8, part 2: Retrieved on 27th January 2012 from:
Chapter 8, part 3: Retrieved on 27th January 2012 from:



Choosing Your Writing Niche

Web writers often choose a  writing  niche or specialty. Specialization may be a certain topic or group of topics, such as business. It can also mean that you specialize in certain forms of  writing .

There are advantages to choosing a  writing  niche. By choosing a niche, you’re positioning yourself as an expert or specialist. If a consumer is looking for information on a specific topic, they are most likely to listen to someone who is particularly knowledgeable about that topic. Whatever your niche, your readers want to know that you know what you’re talking about. The more expertise you offer them, the more you establish trust and credibility.

Categories of  Writing 

Writers often focus on particular categories, such as business, health or finance. If you have a lot of experience in a certain area, you might want to stick to a particular category. What is your knowledge and experience? For example, if you’ve been working long term as a financial counselor or a nurse, you have special expertise to offer. Likewise if you are the parent of an autistic child or someone who has overcome a disability, your experience can benefit others. Chances are that you have something to offer that is unique.

More important than experience is interest. Whatever niche you choose should be something that you are passionately interested in, something that you aren’t going to get tired of. If you can’t get enough health-related magazines, you may want to specialize in  writing  about health topics. If you have a decade or more experience working in a salon, you might want to specialize in beauty-related topics.

Type of  Writing 

Along with a topic, think about what formats you prefer to write in. Do you prefer  writing  shorter pieces like articles and blog posts? Or do you prefer longer pieces like ebooks or reports? Have you thought about  writing  sales letters?

There are a variety of possible business models. Give some thought to what is the best business model for you. You can build a business around  writing  ebooks, or you can write mostly short informal pieces. There is a large demand for specialized  writing , such as  writing  press releases, autoresponders or white papers.

Should You Specialize?

There are both advantages and disadvantages to offering specialized  writing . If you specialize, you brand yourself an expert and you will attract clients who are looking for an expert. Specialization often leads to greater profits. On the other hand, if you offer several types of  writing  on a variety of topics,  writing  will always be interesting and challenging.

American Indians and Health/Illness

American Indians and Health/Illness

Seminoles are a part of American Indians who have inhabited Florida. The Seminoles are descendant of Indians who were left behind after the Seminoles war in 1842. They inhabit the Everglades part of Florida. Though they have changed with time they still carry on with their practices. According to Englar (2002), the Seminoles are arranged in nine clans and descent is counted from the mother’s side. These clans are named after animals like the panther, wildcat, and tiger just to name a few. Although each American Indian tribe has its beliefs some of the practices are general.
Birth / death beliefs
The Seminoles life of birth and death was believed to be that of reincarnation. This meant that a person could die and then another person is born to replace them in character and role(Spector, 2009). Birth was considered a blessing since life was holy. Death on the other hand was a transition to another life. Death was caused by super natural power (King, 2006). The Seminoles believed that life after death was determined by ones fate. One could reincarnate as a person or as an animal. One could also become a ghost and go to another. Death of a person was accompanied by mourning. Once a person died ceremonies were carried out to help in the transition of that person to another world.
Health/ illness beliefs
The Seminoles believed that health was living in total harmony with nature and having the ability to survive under exceedingly difficult circumstances (MacCauley, 2008). Human beings are said to be intimate with nature. The earth and the body have the ability of being either healthy or not healthy. One is expected to treat their body with respect. Once the body is harmed the earth is as well harmed. The body should therefore be protected to stay healthy.
Illness or disease was caused by lack of protection from supernatural powers. Protection is offered by wearing charms. Illness was also caused by interference of the body by a material object which was caused by sorcery or absence of a free soul in the body. They also believed there is a reason for illness or pain (King, 2006). It can be a price being paid for something that happened in the past or will happen in the future.
Who is their healer?
The Seminoles believed in a medicine man or a woman as their healer. They sought all their medical attention from the medicine man or woman. They understood better the relationship between humans and the earth. They understood the planets, sun and the moon(Spector, 2007). To cure an illness they took their time then had to engage in a mission to find a cure for the illness. They would perform ceremonies in order to find these cures (Englar, 2002). Cure of different illnesses were found from plants, animals and other natural things. A healer could have the role of a medicine man/ woman, a spokesman and a spiritual leader.
In a nutshell, the Seminoles are descendant of Indians, left behind after the Seminoles war in 1842. Seminoles believed in reincarnation and also in the Supreme Being and the powers of a medicine man or woman who acts as a go between. However, they have with time forgotten their culture and incorporated themselves with the American cultures.

Englar, M. (2002). The Seminole: The First People of Florida. Minnesota: Capstone Press.
King, D. (2006). The Seminole. London: Marshall Cavendish.
MacCauley, C. (2008). The Seminole Indians of Florida. South Carolina: BiblioBazaar
Spector, R. E. (2009). Cultural diversity in health and illness. (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Chapter 8, part 1: Retrieved on 25th January 2012 from:
Chapter 8, part 2: Retrieved on 25th January 2012 from:
Chapter 8, part 3: Retrieved on 25th January 2012 from